From left: Afforestation for bio-energy reserves was core activity of the bilateral programme. Ever more farmers will receive land titles and be able to take part in income generation from planted forests. At the end of the value chain, biomass utilization becomes more efficient through the use of improved stoves.


German-Malagasy Sustainable Management of the Environment Programme (PAGE) – Component: Professionalisation and dissemination of biomass energy value chain-related aspects

The programme aimed to improve the protection and sustainable use of resources for increased climate resilience, in and around protected areas. Hitherto uncontrolled logging in natural forests for charcoal production was to be curbed, and people were enabled to take over responsibilities for the conservation and valuation of natural resources. As in previous phases (PGM-E) plantations contributed to the production of 'green'  charcoal and helped expand and safeguard a stock of energy forests. 

As the PGM-E's successor programme the "Programme d'appui à la gestion de l'environnement" (PAGE) worked towards outscaling the activities of charcoal value chain improvement, as afforestation lots were gradually extended to the neighbouring regions of Atsimo-Andrefana and Analamanga.

Dissemination of the 'green' charcoal approach – i.e. charcoal exclusively gained from eucalypt plantations instead of natural forests, hence more sustainably –, and the introduction of improved stoves went hand in hand with endeavours to restore previously forested landscapes that were affected by severe degradation.

In pursuit of the regional strategies "Vision 2030" of DIANA and Boeny the gradual introduction of ever more efficient kiln technologies and strenghthening of local wood energy markets were continued. The "Plans Régionaux en Energie de Biomasse" (regional biomass energy plans) were monitored and updated. 

With a view to long-lasting impacts, people's ownership needs to be endorsed further in the process. In the given phase this was done through capacitation of stakeholders and public services all along the wood energy value chain – such as local user groups in reforestation zones, charcoal producers and charcoal retailers – and by adjusting information campaigns. 

Activities were aligned with Madagascar's National Development Plan (PND) and harmonised with the PND's implementation parties on ground, with the regions as primary driving force and leaders of the process.

Time span
2017 – 2020      

Commissioning body           
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

RVI in detail

In a compendium of issue papers ECO Consult highlights aspects of, among others, the successful community reforestation approach in Madagascar that was practised in the frame of the PGM-E and now PAGE. Standard prerequisites and principles that must be observed to avoid adverse effects are sketched in Issue Paper No 02. (PDF, 4.5 MB)

Individual land titles help combat land degradation

ECO Consult has assisted the transfer of use rights on several hundred thousands of hectares of previously state owned forests to private user groups. Out of various schemes, RVI (individual community-based afforestation) has proven a particularly interesting model in an African context. At UNCCD COP 11, in Windhoek Dr. Steve Sepp presented results from Madagascar. More...

Publication on the project

Impacts and accounts from the context of the programme were compiled by GIZ in the booklet: "Entre fourneaux et esprits de la forêt – La protection de la nature entre efficience énergétique et vieilles traditions: Des idées venues de Madagascar" (part of the series "La durabilité et ses différents visages"). Download here (French PDF, 4.9 MB/ German PDF, 4.9 MB)

Imprint | Disclaimer | Data security